Introduction to Linux Operating System | Features of Linux Operating System

Introduction to Linux Operating System

Introduction to Linux Operating System - Features of Linux Operating System





Linux Operating System

Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution.

Introduction to Linux Operating System


Developer: Community; Linus Torvalds
Written in: C
License: GPLv2 and others (the name "Linux" is a trademark)
Initial release date: 17 September 1991
OS family: Unix-like

Linux (/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen) LIN-əks) is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linux is typically packaged in a Linux distribution (or distro for short).



Linux is one of the popular version of the UNIX Operating System. It is open source as its source code is freely available. It is free to use. Linux was designed considering UNIX compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of UNIX.

Question?

Is Linux a good operating system?

So, being an efficient OS, Linux distributions could be fitted to a range of systems (low-end or high-end). In contrast, the Windows operating system has a higher hardware requirement. Overall, even if you compare a high-end Linux system and a high-end Windows-powered system, the Linux distribution would take the edge.

What is the difference between Linux and Windows?

The prior difference between Linux and Windows operating system is that Linux is totally free of cost whereas windows is a marketable operating system and are costly. ... On the other hand, in windows, users can not access source code, and it is a licensed OS.


Components of Linux System


Introduction to Linux Operating System


  • Linux Operating System has primarily three components

Kernel − Kernel is the core part of Linux. It is responsible for all major activities of this operating system. It consists of various modules and it interacts directly with the underlying hardware. The kernel provides the required abstraction to hide low-level hardware details to system or application programs.

System Library − System libraries are special functions or programs using which application programs or system utilities access Kernel's features. These libraries implement most of the functionalities of the operating system and do not requires the kernel module's code access rights.

System Utility − System Utility programs are responsible to do specialized, individual level tasks.

  • Kernel Mode vs User Mode
Introduction to Linux Operating System

Kernel component code executes in a special privileged mode called kernel mode with full access to all resources of the computer. This code represents a single process, executes in single address space and do not require any context switch and hence is very efficient and fast. The kernel runs each process and provides system services to processes, provides protected access to hardware to processes.

Introduction to Linux Operating System



Support code which is not required to run in kernel mode is in System Library. User programs and other system programs work in User Mode which has no access to system hardware and kernel code. User programs/ utilities use System libraries to access Kernel functions to get the system's low-level tasks.
Basic Features

Following are some of the important features of the Linux Operating System.



Introduction to Linux Operating System


Portable − Portability means software can works on different types of hardware in the same way. Linux kernel and application programs support their installation on any kind of hardware platform.

Open Source − Linux source code is freely available and it is a community-based development project. Multiple teams work in collaboration to enhance the capability of the Linux operating system and it is continuously evolving.

Multi-User − Linux is a multiuser system means multiple users can access system resources like memory/ ram/ application programs at the same time.

Multiprogramming − Linux is a multiprogramming system means multiple applications can run at the same time.

Hierarchical File System − Linux provides a standard file structure in which system files/ user files are arranged.

Shell − Linux provides a special interpreter program which can be used to execute commands of the operating system. It can be used to do various types of operations, call application programs. etc.

Security − Linux provides user security using authentication features like password protection/ controlled access to specific files/ encryption of data.

Architecture



The following illustration shows the architecture of a Linux system −

The architecture of a Linux System consists of the following layers −

Hardware layer − Hardware consists of all peripheral devices (RAM/ HDD/ CPU etc).

Kernel − It is the core component of Operating System, interacts directly with hardware, provides low-level services to upper layer components.

Shell − An interface to the kernel, hiding the complexity of the kernel's functions from users. The shell takes commands from the user and executes kernel's functions.

Utilities − Utility programs that provide the user most of the functionalities of operating systems.




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