What is CPU And Its Components - Central Processing Unit




What is CPU And Its Components


What is CPU And Its Components





CPU (Central Processing Unit)



What is CPU And Its Components




CPU is considered as the brain of the computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions(program). It controls the operation of all parts of the computer.


A central processing unit, also called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output operations specified by the instructions

The central processing unit (CPU) is the unit which performs most of the processing inside a computer. To control instructions and data flow to and from other parts of the computer, the CPU relies heavily on a chipset, which is a group of microchips located on the motherboard.




History of CPU





Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a device for software (computer program) execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer.

What is CPU And Its Components



The idea of a stored-program computer had been already present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC but was initially omitted so that it could be finished sooner. On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled the First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would eventually be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types. Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.

This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, which was the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed simply by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, however, was not the first stored-program computer; the Manchester Baby, a small-scale experimental stored-program computer, ran its first program on 21 June 1948 and the Manchester Mark 1 ran its first program during the night of 16–17 June 1949.




What is CPU And Its Components



  • ALU(Arithmetic Logic Unit)

What is CPU And Its Components


An arithmetic logic unit is a combinational digital electronic circuit that performs arithmetic and bitwise operations on integer binary numbers. This is in contrast to a floating-point unit, which operates on floating point numbers.

  • Memory Unit




The computer memory is a temporary storage area. It holds the data and instructions that the Central Processing Unit (CPU) needs. Before a program can run, the program is loaded from some storage medium into the memory. This allows the CPU direct access to the program.

  • Control Unit

The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. It tells the computer's memory, arithmetic, and logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.

A control unit or CU is circuitry that directs operations within a computer's processor. ... Examples of devices that utilize control units include CPUs and GPUs. A control unit works by receiving input information that it converts into control signals, which are then sent to the central processor.




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